Jews settled in the private town of Kėdainiai in the first half of the 17th century. The Jewish community grew rapidly, so local Christian-dwellers asked town owners to implement restrictions on Jews, limiting their living space in town. Thus, the town’s owner issued regulations, which allowed Jews to live only in a separate part of town – the Jewish quarter, which is located around the Synagogue complex. However, despite the restrictions, some Jews lived outside the boundaries of the Jewish quarter. The main market square was the most attractive place in town to do business, as many people from neighboring towns and other areas gathered here during the weekly markets. Most of the local Jews engaged in crafts and small trade. Later, in the 19th century, the local Jews began to grow cucumbers and sell them in many Lithuanian and even Latvian towns.