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JEWISH Baku

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Jewish population of Baku consists mainly of Ashkenazi Jews, who started arriving in Baku in 1832. They are believed to be soldier-cantonists, underage sons of Russian conscripts, who from 1721 were educated in special “canton schools” for future military service. These schools were called garrison schools in the 18th century) and those who left the Pale of Settlement (the western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish residency was mostly forbidden). The industrialization of Baku as a result of the oil boom attracted many qualified immigrants, including Ashkenazi Jews. In 1913, the population of Jews was 9,689 people or 4.5% and this number was constantly increasing.  Jews played an important role in the intellectual and artistic life of Baku. For example, 75 out of 238 lawyers, and 69 out of 185 doctors for Jews in the late 19-early 20th centuries. There were Jewish schools, religious schools for learning Torah, Talmud and Mishna, private musical and girls’ schools, and libraries. In 1910, there was a Jewish Cultural Society “Palestine”. They played an important role in the development of the oil industry in Azerbaijan. For example, the construction of the Baku-Batumi oil pipeline was predominantly funded by the Rothschilds. Baku-born engineer David Landau and his wife doctor Lyubov Veniaminovna Landau contributed to the scientific life of Baku. Their son Lev became one of the most prominent scientists of the 20th century and got nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics.  Apart from the Ashkenazi, a small group of Georgian Jews had also emerged in Baku. They had moved to Baku from different cities of Georgia in late 19-early 20th centuries and emigrated to Baku for economic reasons. They spoke Georgian language and kept all Georgian traditions including food but strictly followed Jewish religious rule.   The fall of the Tsar Russia in 1917 was greeted with enthusiasm among the Jews of Baku as it meant elimination of many anti-Jewish rules. The establishment of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 granted equal rights to all nationalities living in the territories of Azerbaijan. Jewish population of Azerbaijan contributed to the political life of the young republic. Moisey Gukhman was the first Jewish parliamentarian. The Minister of Health was E. Hindes, deputy Minister of Finance and the Chairman of the State Bank was M. Abeshaus.  With the establishment of the Soviet Union, the Jewish population of Baku was increasing due to the persecutions in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus and the outcomes of the civil war in the country, which made people look for better life elsewhere. The Soviet policy on fighting illiteracy facilitated opening of schools for Mountain Jews, clubs and libraries. However, schools in Jewish languages were being shut down by the Stalin regime of the 1930’s, as well as the synagogues, religious schools and other religious buildings. As a result of the mass propaganda of proletarian internationalism mixed marriages were increasing and Jews were increasingly assimilating with other ethnic and religious groups. Many lost their identity, language and traditions. The processes resulted in the formation of the phenomenon known as “Bakuvian” (бакинец) – an interesting symbiosis of cultures of different ethnic groups, in which the Jewish population of Baku was an integral part.  Jews joined the Soviet army, even participated in World War II. Many veterans recall stories when Jewish and Azeri people were held captive in the war and Azeri people saved the lives of their Jewish comrades saying they were Azeris. Jews of Azerbaijan also fought for the independence of Azerbaijan in the 1990’s. Among them Albert Agarunov became a national hero of Azerbaijan. However, the Jewish population of Baku and Azerbaijan in general has been decreasing even since it gained independence.   

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Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center

Azerbaijan is a modern and strong country attached to its past and advancing confidently into the future. Azerbaijan is a country cherishing its values. Respect for national and moral wealth, history, traditions, the human factor and citizens is our top priority. The modern Azerbaijan is recognized in the world through its nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev. And the Center bearing the name of Heydar Aliyev has become a symbol of modern Azerbaijan and modern Baku. The building of the Heydar Aliyev Center is an embodiment of the development of the present-day Azerbaijan and its attachment both to the past and to the future. The logo of the Heydar Aliyev Center also represents a reflection of this idea. The Center’s logo symbolizes Azerbaijan’s forward-looking aspirations, the progress and the future of the country. The silver color of the logo epitomizes the overcoming of obstacles and moving towards a goal. The silver color is a symbol of leadership, struggle, dynamism, wisdom, transparency, development and innovation. The lines of the logo harmonize with the building of the Heydar Aliyev Center and embody Azerbaijan’s dynamic development, the country’s aspirations to becoming an international leader and progress through perpetuation of values such as attachment to the Motherland and people. The Heydar Aliyev Center’s logo emphasizes the institution’s mission viewed through the prism of global and national values, nation building traditions and the message to be passed over to future generations. The Center’s slogan "To the Future with Values!" is based on this idea.

Sites

Landau Memorial

One of the USSR’s finest physicists and the first physicist from Baku to win the prestigious Nobel Prize, Lev Landau is an undoubted star in the history of Baku’s Jewish community. He was born on 22nd January 1908 in the oil settlement of Balakhani, where his father served as a senior engineer in the oil company owned by the Rothschilds – the famous Jewish dynasty who played a great role in developing Baku’s oil industry. Later the Landaus moved to an apartment in this elegant Oil-Boom era building in central Baku on the corner of Samad Vurghun and Nizami streets. Incidentally, in Soviet times there was a little bar on the first floor and people used to say, “Let’s go to Landau”, which meant “let’s go and have a drink”. The young Landau showed a great talent for science from early childhood and at the age of just 14 was admitted to Baku State University, where he studied physics and chemistry (later dropping chemistry). In 1924 he left Baku to immerse himself in studying theoretical physics at Leningrad State University, from which he graduated in 1927. During his working life he served as head of the physics department of the National Scientific Centre at the Institute of Physics and Technology in Kharkiv, and later of the theoretical department of the Institute for Physical Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow. In 1938 he was arrested and spent a year in prison for his anti-Stalinist views. Landau was revered as a teacher and made world-famous by his many discoveries and theories in topics such as nuclear theory, solid-state physics, quantum field theory and astrophysics. For his groundbreaking work concerning condensed matter, especially liquid helium, he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1962, the same year he sustained serious injuries in a car crash that led to his premature death 6 years later.

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World Jewish Travel Official May 24, 2022

The Jewish Story of Baku, Azerbaijan

Jewish population of Baku consists mainly of Ashkenazi Jews, who started arriving in Baku in 1832. They are believed to be soldier-cantonists, underage sons of Russian conscripts, who from 1721 were educated in special “canton schools” for future military service. These schools were called garrison schools in the 18th century) and those who left the Pale of Settlement (the western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish residency was mostly forbidden). The industrialization of Baku as a result of the oil boom attracted many qualified immigrants, including Ashkenazi Jews. In 1913, the population of Jews was 9,689 people or 4.5% and this number was constantly increasing.  Jews played an important role in the intellectual and artistic life of Baku. For example, 75 out of 238 lawyers, and 69 out of 185 doctors for Jews in the late 19-early 20th centuries. There were Jewish schools, religious schools for learning Torah, Talmud and Mishna, private musical and girls’ schools, and libraries. In 1910, there was a Jewish Cultural Society “Palestine”. They played an important role in the development of the oil industry in Azerbaijan. For example, the construction of the Baku-Batumi oil pipeline was predominantly funded by the Rothschilds. Baku-born engineer David Landau and his wife doctor Lyubov Veniaminovna Landau contributed to the scientific life of Baku. Their son Lev became one of the most prominent scientists of the 20th century and got nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics.  Apart from the Ashkenazi, a small group of Georgian Jews had also emerged in Baku. They had moved to Baku from different cities of Georgia in late 19-early 20th centuries and emigrated to Baku for economic reasons. They spoke Georgian language and kept all Georgian traditions including food but strictly followed Jewish religious rule.   The fall of the Tsar Russia in 1917 was greeted with enthusiasm among the Jews of Baku as it meant elimination of many anti-Jewish rules. The establishment of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 granted equal rights to all nationalities living in the territories of Azerbaijan. Jewish population of Azerbaijan contributed to the political life of the young republic. Moisey Gukhman was the first Jewish parliamentarian. The Minister of Health was E. Hindes, deputy Minister of Finance and the Chairman of the State Bank was M. Abeshaus.  With the establishment of the Soviet Union, the Jewish population of Baku was increasing due to the persecutions in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus and the outcomes of the civil war in the country, which made people look for better life elsewhere. The Soviet policy on fighting illiteracy facilitated opening of schools for Mountain Jews, clubs and libraries. However, schools in Jewish languages were being shut down by the Stalin regime of the 1930’s, as well as the synagogues, religious schools and other religious buildings. As a result of the mass propaganda of proletarian internationalism mixed marriages were increasing and Jews were increasingly assimilating with other ethnic and religious groups. Many lost their identity, language and traditions. The processes resulted in the formation of the phenomenon known as “Bakuvian” (бакинец) – an interesting symbiosis of cultures of different ethnic groups, in which the Jewish population of Baku was an integral part.  Jews joined the Soviet army, even participated in World War II. Many veterans recall stories when Jewish and Azeri people were held captive in the war and Azeri people saved the lives of their Jewish comrades saying they were Azeris. Jews of Azerbaijan also fought for the independence of Azerbaijan in the 1990’s. Among them Albert Agarunov became a national hero of Azerbaijan. However, the Jewish population of Baku and Azerbaijan in general has been decreasing even since it gained independence.   

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#JEWISHBAKU

Баня Фантазия

#oldbaku #baku #experienceazerbaijan #europetravel #europetrip #tripadvisor #travel #vscoazerbaijan #visitazerbaijan #streetphotography #hiddenbaku #architecture #aztagram #azerbaijan #caucasus #travelphotography #instabaku #oldplaces #hipster #cozyhome #hipsterstyle #sunnyday #icherisheherlivinghistory #bakustreetstyle #italianstyle #woodenbalcony #jewishquarter #jewishbaku #jewish #feridoldbaku
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Улица Мирза Ибрагимова и Центр иследований международных отношений в Баку

#oldbaku #baku #experienceazerbaijan #europetravel #europetrip #tripadvisor #travel #vscoazerbaijan #visitazerbaijan #streetphotography #hiddenbaku #architecture #aztagram #azerbaijan #caucasus #travelphotography #instabaku #oldplaces #hipster #cozyhome #hipsterstyle #sunnyday #medieval #oriental #icherisheherlivinghistory #bakustreetstyle #modernart #italianstyle #jewishbaku #jewishquarter #sunnyday
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Улица Мирза Ибрагимова, бывшая Армянская, где находятся церковь и дом великого Бакинского архитектора - Йузефа Гославского.
Mirza Ibragimova Street, the former Armenian, where the church and the house of the great Baku architect - Josef Goslavsky are located.

شارع ميرزا ​​إبراجيموفا ، الأرمني السابق ، حيث تقع الكنيسة ومنزل المهندس المعماري الكبير باكو - جوزيف جوسلافسكي.

#oldbaku #baku #experienceazerbaijan #europetravel #europetrip #bakumagazine #tourism #tripadvisor #travel #vscoazerbaijan #visitazerbaijan #streetphotography #hiddenbaku #reconstruction #architecture #aztagram #azerbaijan #caucasus #travelphotography #instabaku #fotografia #oldplaces #palazzo #oldpalace #artnouveau #modernart #jewishquarter
#jewishbaku #jewishhistory #saudiarabia
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Долгое время, десятилетиями, одно из красивейших уголков Бакинского форштадта - Еврейский квартал был в ужасном состоянии. Этот красивый особняк, построенный в 1913 году по проекту немецкого архитектора Фердинанда Лемкуля, располагается на улице имени Башира Сафароглу, 165. За последний год памятник архитектуры, занесённый в реестр под номером 3160, был полностью реставрирован, освобождён от самовольно установленных балконов, козырьков, конструкций, антенн, проводов, защитных решёток и кондиционеров.
For a long time, for decades, one of the most beautiful corners of the Baku Forstadt - the Jewish quarter was in terrible condition. This beautiful mansion, built in 1913 according to the project of the German architect Ferdinand Lemkul, is located on 165 Bashir Safaroglu Street. Over the past year, the monument of architecture listed in register number 3160 has been completely restored, freed from unauthorized installation of balconies, visors, structures antennas, wires, protective grilles and air conditioners.

لفترة طويلة ، ولعقود ، كانت إحدى أجمل زوايا باكو فورستادت - الحي اليهودي في حالة رهيبة. تم بناء هذا القصر الجميل في عام 1913 وفقًا لمشروع المهندس المعماري الألماني فرديناند ليمكول ، ويقع في 165 شارع بشير سفاروغلو. خلال العام الماضي ، تم ترميم النصب التذكاري للهندسة المعمارية المدرجة في السجل رقم 3160 بالكامل ، وتم تحريره من التركيب غير المصرح به للشرفات ، والأقنعة ، والهوائيات
الهيكلية ، والأسلاك ، والشبكات الواقية ومكيفات الهواء.

#oldbaku #baku #experienceazerbaijan #europetravel #europetrip #bakumagazine #tourism #tripadvisor #travel #vscoazerbaijan #visitazerbaijan #streetphotography #hiddenbaku #reconstruction #architecture #aztagram #azerbaijan #caucasus #travelphotography #instabaku #fotografia #oldplaces #balcony #cozyhome #cozystreet #jewishbaku #jewishquarter #jewish
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