The “Sephardic Jerusalem” is known around the world for the beauty of its synagogues and its Jewish quarter. The memory of the community has remained vivid in Toledo; historians have from the thirteenth and fourteenth century onward been able to supply fairly precise information about the location and history of the city’s Jewish community. Toledo is a city of great historical and artistic importance and is listed here as a World Heritage Site. At the time of its greatest splendor, just before 1391, Toledo had ten synagogues and five to seven yeshivot. In 1492 there were five grand synagogues, two of which survive: the Tránsito, now the Sephardic Museum, and Santa María la Blanca. The quarter can be reached through a gate. One of the many entrances is the gate Puerta de Assulca, which has in its vicinity in flea market where oil, butter, chickpeas, lentils and everything necessary for daily life are sold. Then it enters the streets, adarves (dead-end streets) and squares of the quarter. The main street is called Calle del Mármol and connects the Jewish quarter with the rest of the city. There is a market, places to pray, public baths, bread ovens, palaces and a wall. Near the Tagus river is the neighborhood Barrio del Degolladero, so named because here was the designated place for the ritual slaughter (shechitah) of beef-cattle. In the neighborhood Barrio de Hamazelt the richest Jewish families lived and in the street known today as San Juan de Dios, lived the best known Jew of Toledo: Samuel ha-Levi. He was the treasurer of the king Peter of Castile and ordered the building of a big synagogue, that later was known as the "Synagogue of el Tránsito". And as in all the Jewish houses, features a mezuzah containing passages from Deuteronomy affixed to its door-post. Two Jewish places of worship are preserved today (both as museums), Santa María la Blanca (formerly the Synagogue of Ibn Shushan) and El Tránsito. In a bygone age, every Friday before sunset, a rabbi sounded the shofar (a goat's horn) three times announcing the arrival of the Sabbath.
Samuel ben Meir Ha-Levi Abulafia was a public figure, the treasurer of king Pedro I "the Cruel" of Castile and founder of the Synagogue of El Transito in Toledo, Spain. He was a member of the powerful Abulafia family, who provided leadership to the Jewish community of Toledo and Castile more generally since around 1200. Samuel's parents died of plague shortly after arriving in Toledo. Subsequently, he worked as an administrator to the Portuguese knight Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, but soon became recognized enough to achieve employment at the court of Pedro I of Castile, first as camarero mayor (chamberlain), later as almojarife (treasurer), and as oídor (judge). His employment came to an end when the enemies of Pedro I, led by Henry of Trastámara, organized a pogrom against the Toledan Jewry, enabling them to assume possession of the royal treasures. The king, accompanied by Samuel Ha-Levi, marched to Toro to demand the return of his belongings. Following this, Samuel Ha-Levi supported the King in reclaiming Toledo for the crown, and in the establishment of a peace treaty with the Portuguese at Évora in 1358. In Toledo, he lived in the palace that is today the Museo de El Greco, and with the considerable riches bestowed upon him by his employer he founded the Synagogue of El Transito between 1355 and 1357. The building, still around today, was one of ten synagogues serving Toledo's large Jewish population. The building is architecturally exquisite and has features in common with the Muslim architecture of King Pedro's palace in Seville and the Alhambra palaces in Granada, even including inscriptions in Arabic as well as Hebrew. Its construction was opposed by the Catholic church, but King Pedro permitted it. The King was constantly criticized by his rivals for his permissive stance towards Jews, compelling him to turn against Samuel, having him incarcerated and tortured on suspicion of embezzlement in 1360. He died under duress of torture. The prominence of Samuel Ha-Levi Abulafia at Pedro's court is cited as evidence of his supposed pro-Jewish sentiment, but Don Samuel's success did not necessarily reflect the general experience of the Spanish Jewry in this period which was often marked by discrimination and pogroms. Even Samuel's career showed that the opportunities for Jews were restricted to certain offices and positions whereas other forms of advancement were denied to them.
Rightly regarded as a true city within a city, the madinat al-Yahud, or city of the Jews, constitutes a broad urban space which occupies almost ten percent of walled Toledo. The Jewish quarter of Toledo is divided into different districts, each corresppnding to the different stages of expansion, creating an intricate maze that needs to be marked out in order to gain a real overview of how the Jews of Toledo acted and they lived for at least eleven centuries. Although the oldest written documents date their presence back to the 4th century, in the context of the Roman Toletum, the Sephardi goes further back and relates the Jews to the very mythical origin of the city, deeming it likely that the first Jews arrive in the Iberian Península at the time of the Assyrian and Babylonian exiles in the 8th to 6th centuries B.C.
Come and experience the history of Jews in Spain: explore museums and world heritage sites, walk through the old cobbled lanes of Jewish neighborhoods, take in the splendid architecture and eat delicious food, drink Spanish wine while learning about the Golden Age of the Jews of Sepharad on this unique family run, multi-day Jewish Heritage Tour to Spain.
Toledo, close to Madrid, is famous for its walls and its historical success in silk and sword production. It was one of the most important Jewish cities of medieval Europe, and was even Spain's capital, before this was transferred to Madrid in 1561. Toledo is home to some of the largest Jewish archives in Europe. The ancient Jewish quarter of Toledo housed the famous Escuela de Traductores (School of Translators), allowing the local population to capitalize on the Jews' knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew and translate important works into Latin and Spanish. Famous personalities: Samuel Halevi (1320-1361)