WJT

JEWISH Minsk

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The capital of Belarus, Minsk is a beautiful city with a rich historical heritage that was largely promoted by the Jewish population. Jews began to populate Minsk actively in the 16th century, and since that time their number has only grown. It is hard to believe that from the middle of the 19th century until the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Minsk was a predominantly Jewish city - 52% of the capital's population were Jews, and this was the city's largest community.  Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright © From the beginning of the 14th century until 1793, Minsk was part of Poland-Lithuania; it later fell under czarist rule and became the most important commercial center of Belarus from the 15th century. At the same time, the first Jews appeared on the territory of modern Belarus, during the era of the existence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Jews who lived there in this medieval state and their descendants are still called "Litvaks". The Jewish community of Minsk prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries in spite of the opposition of the townspeople. During the 19th century, Minsk was one of the largest and most important communities in Russia. In 1847 the Jewish population numbered 12,976, rising to 47,562 (52.3% of the total population) in 1897, which made Minsk the fourth largest community in the Pale of Settlement.  Minsk was one of the places where the Jewish labor movement originated and developed. In the middle of the 1870s circles of Jewish Socialists were organized, which were very active during the 1880s and 1890s. The years 1893–94 also saw the birth of the "national opposition" to them, led by A. Liessin. In 1895 a convention of Jewish Socialists was held in Minsk, which discussed the projected establishment of a Jewish Socialist Federation. The Jewish Socialists of Minsk sent delegates to the founding convention of the Bund in 1897, and Minsk became one of the centers of the Bund's activities, being the first seat of the movement's central committee until 1898, when it was dispersed by the police. From 1901 to 1903, Minsk likewise became the center of the activities of the Independent Jewish Workers' Party. Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright © After the establishment of the Soviet regime, Jewish communal and religious life was silenced at Minsk as elsewhere in the Soviet Union. The suppressed religious and national institutions were replaced by institutions of Jewish culture based on the Yiddish language and Communist ideology, and Minsk became an important center of Jewish-Communist cultural activity in the Soviet Union. Moreover, until 1936, Yiddish was the state language of the BSSR together with the Belarusian, Russian and Polish languages. Yiddish schools were established, and at the Institute of Belorussian Culture, founded in 1924, a Jewish section was organized. It published several scientific works devoted to Jewish history, literature, and folklore. A Jewish department was also established (1921) within the faculty of education of the University of Minsk. These institutions, however, were closed down in the mid-1930s. Various newspapers, periodicals, and other publications in Yiddish were issued in the town. These included the daily newspaper Der Shtern (1918–21), Der Veker (1917–25; until 1921 the organ of the Bund), Oktyabr (1925–41), and the literary monthly Shtern (1925–41). In 1926 the Belorussian Jewish State Theater was opened, presenting performances until June 1941. In 1926 there were 53,686 Jews in Minsk (40.8% of the population), increasing to 70,998 by 1939 (29.7% of the total population). Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright © Some 100,000 inhabitants were left in the city when the German forces entered on June 28. The population rose to 150,000 as the front line moved farther east, and tens of thousands who had fled and had been overtaken by the speed of the German advance, turned back. About one-third of these were local Jews. Their number was increased by refugees from as far west as Bialystok, as well as by survivors of mass executions carried out by the Einsatzkommandos (mobile killing squads) in the vicinity, so that another 30,000 Jews were added. Later, about 23,500 German, Austrian, and Czech Jews were deported to Minsk, and settled in a separate ghetto, so that despite the fact that a large number of Minsk Jews had been murdered before the establishment of the ghetto, at least 85,000 Jews found themselves incarcerated and trapped. Some say the numbers were as high as 100,000. The only Jews to survive the Minsk Ghetto were those who escaped, and it is believed, up to 13 people who hid underground for 9 months.   The resistance record of the Jews imprisoned in the Minsk ghetto is unique. One Sunday in 1941, within days of finding themselves inside the ghetto, a group of local Jews and Jewish Communists from Poland met and decided that it was the duty of the Minsk Jews to take an active part in the war against the German invaders. They rejected the possibility of armed resistance inside the ghetto and decided to devote all their efforts to affecting the escape of the largest possible number of Jews into the forests in order to become partisans. Four resistance groups arose in the "Aryan" part of the city in August and September 1941. However, it was only after the November 7 massacre that Hersh Smolar, the Polish-born leader of the Jewish resistance, met Isai Pavlovich Kozinets, known as Slavek, the leader of one of the four groups, who subsequently became the leader of the entire underground movement in Minsk.  Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright © After World War II, the Jewish culture of Belarus was destroyed. The surviving Jews, under the pressure of the anti-Semitic policy of the authorities, were actively assimilated. The activity of religious communities was practically stopped in the 1940s - 1950s. The number of the Jewish population in the post-war period decreased from 150,000 in 1959 to 112,000 in 1989. And today in Belarus, according to the latest census, there are only about 12 thousand Jews.  Almost nothing reminds of the pre-war and even more so the pre-revolutionary Jewish heritage, old Jewish schools and synagogues were closed or converted into civilian facilities. However, if desired, traces of the Jewish presence can still be found.  

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Jewish Style Restaurants

Restaurants

Kuhmistr

When the owners of “Kukhmistra” decided to open a restaurant of Belarusian national cuisine in Minsk, there were very few establishments of this type in the city. It was immediately decided to adhere to maximum authenticity and historicity, both in cooking and in the story about them, for which a well-known historian of Belarusian cuisine Ales Bely was invited as a consultant. The desire for maximum historical authenticity, for following the canons of authentic Belarusian cuisine, cooperation remains with us to this day. In the 1970s - 80s. in our premises there was a "Komsomol" buffet and a photo laboratory of the youth magazine "Maladost", with which a whole galaxy of Belarusian writers and artists of the era of "stagnation" was associated. Vladimir Korotkevich, Vasil Bykov, Yanka Bryl, composer Igor Luchenok, cosmonaut Vladimir Kovalyonok were guests of the editorial office then more than once. However, since the opening of the restaurant, the VIP list has accumulated no less impressive. Perhaps hundreds of Belarusian and Russian pop stars, well-known public figures, entrepreneurs, and cultural figures have managed to visit us. Kuhmistr - (in German - "master, or master of the kitchen") - means about the same as what is called "chef" today. So in the Commonwealth, including the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, they called the cooks who commanded the royal, princely and magnate kitchens, who were invited first from Italy, France and Germany, but were gradually replaced by capable local students. By the way, since the summer of 2018, in the lobby of the restaurant, guests have been greeted by a life-size figure of the real Kukhmistr - the visible embodiment of our identity. Dressed in the fashion of the turn of the 18th-19th centuries, a collective image of all the glorious chefs of our history, but most of all, he took from the famous Pavel Tremo, the cook of the last king of the Commonwealth, Stanislav Poniatovsky, looks almost like a living person and is very much loved with him “in an embrace”. take pictures of our guests. Our interior saturated with many mysterious or simply funny trinkets, hints at the atmosphere of a bourgeois Minsk apartment, when the idea of ​​the Belarusian nation and statehood was born, but traditional culture, both folk and gentry, was still alive - which the 20th century prepared for difficult trials. And at the beginning of 2019, we began to equip a small memorial corner dedicated to the Ruzhany Sapieha Palace and Park Complex, the restoration of which has been underway in recent years and we are making our contribution to it.

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World Jewish Travel Official August 2, 2022

The Jewish City Story of Minsk, Belarus

The capital of Belarus, Minsk is a beautiful city with a rich historical heritage that was largely promoted by the Jewish population. Jews began to populate Minsk actively in the 16th century, and since that time their number has only grown. It is hard to believe that from the middle of the 19th century until the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Minsk was a predominantly Jewish city - 52% of the capital's population were Jews, and this was the city's largest community.  [caption id="attachment_28529" align="alignnone" width="1824"] Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright ©[/caption] From the beginning of the 14th century until 1793, Minsk was part of Poland-Lithuania; it later fell under czarist rule and became the most important commercial center of Belarus from the 15th century. At the same time, the first Jews appeared on the territory of modern Belarus, during the era of the existence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Jews who lived there in this medieval state and their descendants are still called "Litvaks". The Jewish community of Minsk prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries in spite of the opposition of the townspeople. During the 19th century, Minsk was one of the largest and most important communities in Russia. In 1847 the Jewish population numbered 12,976, rising to 47,562 (52.3% of the total population) in 1897, which made Minsk the fourth largest community in the Pale of Settlement.  Minsk was one of the places where the Jewish labor movement originated and developed. In the middle of the 1870s circles of Jewish Socialists were organized, which were very active during the 1880s and 1890s. The years 1893–94 also saw the birth of the "national opposition" to them, led by A. Liessin. In 1895 a convention of Jewish Socialists was held in Minsk, which discussed the projected establishment of a Jewish Socialist Federation. The Jewish Socialists of Minsk sent delegates to the founding convention of the Bund in 1897, and Minsk became one of the centers of the Bund's activities, being the first seat of the movement's central committee until 1898, when it was dispersed by the police. From 1901 to 1903, Minsk likewise became the center of the activities of the Independent Jewish Workers' Party. [caption id="attachment_28528" align="alignnone" width="1824"] Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright ©[/caption] After the establishment of the Soviet regime, Jewish communal and religious life was silenced at Minsk as elsewhere in the Soviet Union. The suppressed religious and national institutions were replaced by institutions of Jewish culture based on the Yiddish language and Communist ideology, and Minsk became an important center of Jewish-Communist cultural activity in the Soviet Union. Moreover, until 1936, Yiddish was the state language of the BSSR together with the Belarusian, Russian and Polish languages. Yiddish schools were established, and at the Institute of Belorussian Culture, founded in 1924, a Jewish section was organized. It published several scientific works devoted to Jewish history, literature, and folklore. A Jewish department was also established (1921) within the faculty of education of the University of Minsk. These institutions, however, were closed down in the mid-1930s. Various newspapers, periodicals, and other publications in Yiddish were issued in the town. These included the daily newspaper Der Shtern (1918–21), Der Veker (1917–25; until 1921 the organ of the Bund), Oktyabr (1925–41), and the literary monthly Shtern (1925–41). In 1926 the Belorussian Jewish State Theater was opened, presenting performances until June 1941. In 1926 there were 53,686 Jews in Minsk (40.8% of the population), increasing to 70,998 by 1939 (29.7% of the total population). [caption id="attachment_28529" align="alignnone" width="2409"] Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright ©[/caption] Some 100,000 inhabitants were left in the city when the German forces entered on June 28. The population rose to 150,000 as the front line moved farther east, and tens of thousands who had fled and had been overtaken by the speed of the German advance, turned back. About one-third of these were local Jews. Their number was increased by refugees from as far west as Bialystok, as well as by survivors of mass executions carried out by the Einsatzkommandos (mobile killing squads) in the vicinity, so that another 30,000 Jews were added. Later, about 23,500 German, Austrian, and Czech Jews were deported to Minsk, and settled in a separate ghetto, so that despite the fact that a large number of Minsk Jews had been murdered before the establishment of the ghetto, at least 85,000 Jews found themselves incarcerated and trapped. Some say the numbers were as high as 100,000. The only Jews to survive the Minsk Ghetto were those who escaped, and it is believed, up to 13 people who hid underground for 9 months.   The resistance record of the Jews imprisoned in the Minsk ghetto is unique. One Sunday in 1941, within days of finding themselves inside the ghetto, a group of local Jews and Jewish Communists from Poland met and decided that it was the duty of the Minsk Jews to take an active part in the war against the German invaders. They rejected the possibility of armed resistance inside the ghetto and decided to devote all their efforts to affecting the escape of the largest possible number of Jews into the forests in order to become partisans. Four resistance groups arose in the "Aryan" part of the city in August and September 1941. However, it was only after the November 7 massacre that Hersh Smolar, the Polish-born leader of the Jewish resistance, met Isai Pavlovich Kozinets, known as Slavek, the leader of one of the four groups, who subsequently became the leader of the entire underground movement in Minsk.  [caption id="attachment_28530" align="alignnone" width="1824"] Photograph by The Together Plan - subject to copyright ©[/caption] After World War II, the Jewish culture of Belarus was destroyed. The surviving Jews, under the pressure of the anti-Semitic policy of the authorities, were actively assimilated. The activity of religious communities was practically stopped in the 1940s - 1950s. The number of the Jewish population in the post-war period decreased from 150,000 in 1959 to 112,000 in 1989. And today in Belarus, according to the latest census, there are only about 12 thousand Jews.  Almost nothing reminds of the pre-war and even more so the pre-revolutionary Jewish heritage, old Jewish schools and synagogues were closed or converted into civilian facilities. However, if desired, traces of the Jewish presence can still be found.  

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HOTELS IN Minsk

Hotels

Hotel Europa

Hotel "Europe" is a hotel with a hundred years of original history. Over the years, such famous personalities as Vladimir Mayakovsky and Marc Chagall have stayed here. It was built at the dawn of the nineteenth century, when Minsk was part of the Russian Empire. Then, at the intersection of Gubernatorskaya Street and Cathedral Square, a building of a new hotel in Minsk was erected, which had 2 floors. The pre-revolutionary hotel was built at the expense of the richest Minsk merchant dynasty of that time, the Polyakov family. The hotel immediately gained great popularity among Minsk bohemia and guests of the then ordinary provincial city, which was repeatedly captured on the canvases of artists of that time. In 1884, after a fire, the hotel became known as "Europe". At the beginning of the twentieth century, the hotel was reconstructed and became a six-story hotel. In addition, the building changed externally, it was rebuilt in the then fashionable Art Nouveau style in Russia. The expressive facades overlooking Cathedral Square and Gubernatorskaya Street were distinguished by the high quality of their decorative workmanship. The hotel was owned at that time by brothers Grigory and Yakov Polyaks. In 1913 The first-class restaurant of Saulevich, ladies' and men's hairdresser's, and a reading room worked in the hotel. Each of the 130 rooms had a telephone, a washbasin, electric lighting, water heating, and a bath. The hotel was famous for its excellent service at that time. We also note the fact that it is “Europe”, and not any other hotels in Minsk, that can boast of being that it was here that the elevator began to run for the first time in the city. A car or carriage was sent to the trains. At Saulevich's restaurant, visitors were entertained by the Romanian and Viennese ladies' orchestras. The hotel building did not survive the war and was completely destroyed. So, for about 60 years, no one even thought about restoring this famous in its time, amazing, the largest civil building in the pre-revolutionary city of Minsk. But the circumstances were different. The hotel was suddenly remembered already in the 21st century. In 2004, the City Hall of Minsk was instructed to rebuild the hotel building in compliance with the stylistic features that this hotel had at the beginning of the last century. The President of the Republic of Belarus signed a decree that the hotel must comply with the status of "five-star". The revived "Europe" opened its doors to visitors in 2007.

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#JEWISHMINSK

Представляем вам Дарью Горох - руководителя лидерской программы "Школа мадрихов", программного директора дневных лагерей и выездных фестивалей.

«Всем привет! Меня зовут Дарья!
Ворвалась в неформальное образование ещё будучи активным подростком в Бобруйской общине. Связала свою жизнь с педагогикой, но практика и реализация своих педагогических и креативных данных по-настоящему раскрылись в еврейской общине. Свою работу я вижу как необъятную платформу для креатива, саморазвития и самореализации. Работа в "Эмуне" даёт возможность объединить ценность еврейской общины и профессиональные навыки, добавив туда горсть желания развиваться и ложечку креатива, в уникальные продукты.
Моими достижениями являются "школа мадрихов" и лагеря (детские и семейные). В этих направлениях я транслируют все ценности еврейской общины, а именно детей, молодёжи и семей в целом. Развитие педагогических навыков в сфере неформального образования у молодёжи - достижение, цель, любимое дело.
Неформальное образование, креативный подход, желание развиваться- девиз мой и направлений в моей работе.
Магистрами филологических наук становятся, а педагогами рождаются.
Вывихнула челюсть, когда чихнула, но это не мешает с улыбкой на лице быть общинным инициатором.
Целый месяц работы барменом дал понять, что лучше образования не может быть ничего, если ты рождён педагогом.
Проводя курс по личностному развитию у детей, я понимаю всю важность ребёнка как личности, и верю в детей».

#эмуна_минск #jcc_emuna_minsk #команда_эмуны
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Представляем вам Юлию Жигайлову - еврейского образователя и координатора программы AJTTora.

«Шалом, друзья! Меня зовут Юлия Жигайлова.
Я расскажу о себе через свои «люблю».

«Люблю свою семью – свою еврейскую семью».

Я мама двух чудесных девочек и жена мужчины, который поддерживает меня в стремлении самореализоваться и развиваться.

«Люблю еврейскую историю и традицию».

Один мудрый человек однажды сказал: «Все ответы – в Торе». Изучая и передавая эти знания, я действительно нахожу ответы на многие вопросы, ощущаю невероятную гордость быть частью еврейского народа.

«Люблю неформальное образование».

В 2002 году я осознанно пошла в путь педагогики. Еще будучи студенткой меня покорило неформальное еврейское образование и его принципы и подходы. Поиск новых путей исследования и личного интереса участников считаю фундаментом успешного образовательного процесса.

«Люблю свою работу».

Я счастлива от того, что моя работа помогает всем моим «люблю» жить и существовать в полной гармонии. Наш Семейный Еврейский Центр «Эмуна» является родным и близким местом для всей нашей семьи. Мой муж еще подростком был его частью, а наши дети в прямом смысле «сделали свои первые шаги» в его стенах, найдя близких друзей и ощущая принадлежность в еврейской общине. Занимаясь развитием еврейского образования в «Эмуне», мне очень трепетно от того, что я помогаю многим участникам наших программ и проектов окунуться в удивительный мир еврейства. Школа мадрихов, семейные фестивали и дневные лагеря, курс еврейских образователей JET… Спасибо «Эмуне» за возможность быть частью великолепной команды, которая создает эти уникальные проекты.
Работа с активными еврейскими подростками и их не менее активными родителями в международном проекте AJT еще больше укрепляет мою веру ценность поддержания связи между еврейскими общинами в разных странах и в то, что нас всегда будут объединять общая история и верность нашим традициям».

#эмуна_минск #jcc_emuna_minsk #команда_эмуны
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67 10

Представляем вам Анну Дашук – руководителя женского клуба и педагога детских программ.

«Всем привет, меня зовут Анна!
В еврейском семейном центре я веду занятия по театру и физкультуре у детей. А для их родителей (и не только) – встречи женского клуба. Мне нравится работа с детьми и родителями. Тут и общение, и радость, и энергия, и возможность на людей посмотреть и себя показать.
Кому как, а для меня себя показать – это важно, так как по натуре я человек-театр. Люблю импровизировать, веселить, вживаться в разные образы, обожаю танцевать. С 12 лет я занималась в театральной студии и даже мечтала поступать в Москву учиться на актрису. Но мой трезвомыслящий отец убедил меня, что лучше быть «единственной и неповторимой» здесь, чем «одной из многих» там. Я подумала и выбрала для себя сферу туризма: там тоже много общения, движения, разнообразия и возможностей проявить себя. Эти возможности я старалась не упускать, и есть что вспомнить и чем похвастаться – от звания лауреата в творческом конкурсе БГУ (я закончила геофак БГУ) до приза зрительских симпатий в конкурсе «Зорка турбiзнесу» и участия в телепроекте СТВ. Все эти активности приносят мне большую радость, драйв и ощущение себя «рыжим солнышком», как меня прозвали еще в студенческие годы.
Главное в жизни для меня семья. Я замужем, у нас двое прекрасных ребят – Федя (10 лет) и Алиса (7 лет). Обожаю выращивать розы и люблю играть со своей собакой. Из-за особенностей здоровья и физического развития сына пришлось глубоко изучить массаж и ЛФК, в ходе длительной реабилитации пробовать разные методы и подходы. Видимо, мои навыки и компетенции помогают мне сегодня в работе. У нас отличная команда, и моя цель - стать педагогом-универсалом. Для этого я совершенствую знания и навыки на специализированных курсах.
Женский клуб, которым руковожу, я вижу как место для безопасного общения, поддержки, а также для обмена знаниями и возможностей самореализации участниц. Для меня каждая пришедшая в наш клуб женщина – интересная книга, достойная бережного отношения к себе и которой есть что рассказать. Меня радует, что дружеские отношения выходят за пределы клуба, и в обычной жизни дружат и дети, и целые семьи»
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🌟 Минскому еврейскому общинному дому – двадцать лет!
‼️ Не пропустите это событие!
🎊 Ждём вас на празднике в МЕОДе:
✔️ 4 сентября (воскресенье)
✔️ улица Веры Хоружей, 28
✔️ начало в 13.00.

🌷Гостеприимные меодовцы подготовили для вас интереснейшую программу – с творческими и кулинарными мастер-классами для всех возрастов, квестами, экскурсиями, танцами, концертом и множеством других сюрпризов.

Программа:
13:00. Начало праздника
13:30. Официальная часть.
14:00–17:00. Интерактивные локации для всех возрастов.
17:30. Выступление кавер-бэнда.

♥️ Перешлите, пожалуйста, эту информацию близким и друзьям.

🌟 Будем рады видеть всех вас на 20-летии Минского еврейского общинного дома.
...

46 19

✡️ Happy Shavuot Day!

🌿 Праздник Шавуот.
🌿 Шаббат.
🌿 Начало лета.
🌷 Всё это мы предлагаем вам встретить (и отметить) вместе с нами!

📝️ Дата: 3 июня (пятница).
⏳️ Время: 18.00
🏡️ Место: двор Минского еврейского общинного дома (ул. В. Хоружей, 28).
👨‍👩‍👧‍👧️ Для кого: разумеется, для всей семьи!

🎊️В программе:
✡️ встреча Шаббата и праздника Шавуот,
🥛 молочное угощение,
🎨 мастер-классы для всех возрастов,
🎶️ street art и музыка,
🎁 розыгрыш ценных призов.

✍️ Для участия, пожалуйста, зарегистрируйтесь: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfjxRAiZev3H_9dNk97ZsX5ti5tuwwbgsth0dXAcb2zONImAQ/viewform?usp=sf_link

‼️ Активная ссылка в историях, а также закреплена в "Актуальном" (раздел "Афиша").

♥️ До встречи 3 июня!
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