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JEWISH Colmar

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Colmar is a town in the Grand Est region of northeastern France, near the border with Germany. Its old town has cobblestone streets lined with half-timbered medieval and early Renaissance buildings. The Gothic 13th-century, Eglise Saint-Martin church stands on central Place de la Cathédrale. The city is on the Alsace Wine Route, and local vineyards specialize in Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines. It is believed that Jews settled in Colmar around the middle of the 13th century; there is a document from 1278 that mentions the Jews living there. The town’s first Jewish community consisted of a synagogue, a mikveh, a cemetery, and a "dance hall.” The Jewish quarter was situated between the western rampart, the present Rue Chauf-four, and the Rue Berthe Molly (formerly the Rue des Juifs). In 1348, during the Black Death persecutions, the Jews of Colmar were all condemned to death and were burnt at the stake the following year. This event took place at what is known still today as "Judenloch."  Colmar synagogue Several years later in 1385, Jews were once again allowed to reside in Colmar. The community consisted of around 29 adults by 1392 but the population started to decrease until 1468 when only two families remained. In 1510, the emperor gave permission to the town to expel the remaining Jews and many moved outside the town to the surrounding areas. They were still able to continue their commercial relations with the burghers of the town, but in 1530 they were forbidden to lend to the burghers. In 1534 they lost the right to trade within Colmar, and in 1541 were forbidden to enter the city even to attend markets and fairs.  This was a result of a decision that Joseph (Joselmann) Gershon of Rosheim made and the result is not well-known. The negative attitude of the burghers toward the Jews remained unchanged, even after Colmar was formally annexed to France in 1681. During the 18th century, there were a few Jews who were authorized in the town in order to prepare ritual food for Jews who visited the town for trade purposes. Finally, after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Jews were again allowed to settle in Colmar and the Jewish population reached approximately 1,200 in 1929. During the Holocaust, Jews in Colmar shared the fate of the other Jews in Alsace and Moselle. They were expelled from their homes, and their synagogue, which was built in 1843, was completely ransacked. After the war the survivors rebuilt the  Jewish community, restored the synagogue, and set up new institutions, including a community center. In 1969 there were over 1,000 Jews in Colmar.  

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SITES TO SEE

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Wintzenheim Jewish Cemetery

When entering the cemetery, this "Bäjs Aulem", this "House of Eternity", the contrast is great between the oldest sandstone tombs of the Vosges, whose sagging stone leans like an orant bent in prayer, and the order of the most recent burials, to whom the the rigidity of the marble or granite slabs confers a certain bourgeois respectability. A monument also commemorates members of the community and neighboring villages who perished in the resistance or in deportation during the Second World War. Opposite the entrance, a large rectangular square. A tiny plaque placed on the ground recalls that four hundred graves were torn from this cemetery, carried away by Nazi barbarism. The traces of at least three generations have thus been erased. The graves, like the Jews at the same time, went to an unknown destination. This void, redoubled by the near absence of Jews, in a place once inhabited by a community bustling , does not fail to question us. It is all the more significant that the Jews have participated for nearly five centuries in the history of the city. Until the end of the 18th century, the Jews of Wintzenheim had to bury their dead in the cemetery of Jungholtz, about thirty kilometers away. They had to pay a tax in each village and in each borough crossed. It was not until 1795 that they were authorized to open a cemetery along the road to Turckheim. When it was created, the cemetery occupied an area of ​​26 ares. A 16-acre plot, acquired in 1826, allowed it to be enlarged in order to bury the Jews of Turckheim, Ingersheim, Wettolsheim and Munster as well. The oldest tomb that remains today dates from 2 Germinal of the year II (1797). The oldest tombs, from around 1797 to 1860, are characterized by a relative uniformity, in accordance with the imperative of simplicity and equality which must unite the Jews in death. They respond to a restraint that refuses the ostentation of social disparities: each tomb is made up of a vertical sandstone slab. Most do not wear decorative patterns. Some are surmounted by a ball, a pine cone, a stylized flower, or even a decorated pediment. From the second half of the 19th century, there is gradually more variety in the decor: hands of the Cohanim, ewer of Lévy, weeping willow and winged hourglass. Religious, and above all social, distinction imposes its mark.

Sites

Cemetery of Selestat

In 1622, when no Jewish family lived in Sélestat, the Jews of the communities or Wintzenheim, Ribeauvillé and Bergheim no longer had any necropolis near Colmar, the city councilors refusing the extension. Also these Jews bought land around Sélestat, in the canton known as Burner, which later took the name of Paradiesweg to establish a rest area. The cemetery (named the "Paradies"), with an area of ​​nearly 4 hectares and comprising around 4000 graves, was created around 1622. The oldest part has been listed as an historic monument since May 10, 1995. Located to the north of the city, it was opened by the Jewish communities of Bergheim, Ribeauvillé, and Dambach-la-Ville, then enlarged several times over the centuries, in 1699, 1719, 1733 respectively. the limits: one of them bears the inscription "Bel Ain", which means house of eternity. In the last century, a fence wall pierced with two doors was installed; on the central portal, we can see two broken poppy branches: the poppy symbolizing sleep, and the broken branches death. The oldest identified stele is that of Rabbi Moïse de Dambach, dating from 1666. Many Jewish personalities of the 17th century rest in this cemetery, in particular the niece of Karl Marx, Rose Blum, as well as Raisel See, heroine of the French Revolution. native of Bergheim, as well as Moïse Meier, president and general representative of the Jews of the province. There is also the tomb of Léopold Weiller, father of Lazare Weiller, who was one of the founders of television, and of the first automobile cab company (the ancestor of taxis). He was a senator for Bas-Rhin. This cemetery makes it possible to observe over a continuous series of changes in Jewish funerary art in the 18th century mainly, through the decorative treatment of the stelae which evolves from a fairly stripped Renaissance style to a more baroque art around the middle of the century. (Dictionary of Historical Monuments Alsace - sept. 1995) During the Nazi Occupation, the cemetery passed into the hands of the authorities. It is the mayor, who, in 1979, ceded for the symbolic franc, the cemetery to the Jewish community. Photo credit: Oie blanche, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

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TOURS OF Colmar

Tours

Hopla Guide

Hi there! We are Laura et Georges, the team behind Hopla Guide. We run this project together, and in our spare time, we run our life together. We are an international couple, she’s Argentinian, he’s French, but both “Made in Alsace”. Travellers, food lovers, culture addicts, wanderers... our lives brought us in many places, from Europe to Latin America. Every trip, we seek for authentic experiences. We want to discover it all, but freely, spontaneously. During our trips, we found ourselves with two options: either we had to follow a guided group, losing our independence, or wander around with the feeling of missing out on important places. What to see ? In what order ? And what souvenirs to buy and bring back home ? Is there no other way? What if we could visit a city on our own, with freedom and flexibility, and be sure we are going to see everything, learn about the local culture, and have fun at the same time? What if we could be guided explorers? One day, we decided to put our abilities together and innovate. Laura has a master's degree in tourism specialized in management, marketing and eco-sustainability. Georges has a master's degree in history of art from Paris-Sorbonne university. We both have professional experience in tourism companies. That is how Hopla Guide started. We built a solution, reimagined guided tours, and created a complete experience, both physical and digital. Cultural information had to be accessible to the explorer at any time, so we chose to build a mobile app, allowing interactivity and flexibility. But we wanted to go further and create something that doesn't stay on your phone but materialises in the real world. So we selected exciting items that enhance the visit and bring the tour on another level of interaction, using other senses : touch, taste and smell. We believe in slow tourism, in a respectful and deeper way of discovering. We empower little groups to live a true cultural exploration, not just a quick run in the city to take some pictures and go away without learning anything. Our explorers are meant to get an honest grasp of the local identity. We invite you to take part in our story and give a chance to another kind of cultural experience.

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READ MORE BLOGS AND EBOOKS

World Jewish Travel Official May 24, 2022

The Jewish Story of Colmar, France

Colmar is a town in the Grand Est region of northeastern France, near the border with Germany. Its old town has cobblestone streets lined with half-timbered medieval and early Renaissance buildings. The Gothic 13th-century, Eglise Saint-Martin church stands on central Place de la Cathédrale. The city is on the Alsace Wine Route, and local vineyards specialize in Riesling and Gewürztraminer wines. It is believed that Jews settled in Colmar around the middle of the 13th century; there is a document from 1278 that mentions the Jews living there. The town’s first Jewish community consisted of a synagogue, a mikveh, a cemetery, and a "dance hall.” The Jewish quarter was situated between the western rampart, the present Rue Chauf-four, and the Rue Berthe Molly (formerly the Rue des Juifs). In 1348, during the Black Death persecutions, the Jews of Colmar were all condemned to death and were burnt at the stake the following year. This event took place at what is known still today as "Judenloch."  [caption id="attachment_31442" align="alignnone" width="1600"] Colmar synagogue[/caption] Several years later in 1385, Jews were once again allowed to reside in Colmar. The community consisted of around 29 adults by 1392 but the population started to decrease until 1468 when only two families remained. In 1510, the emperor gave permission to the town to expel the remaining Jews and many moved outside the town to the surrounding areas. They were still able to continue their commercial relations with the burghers of the town, but in 1530 they were forbidden to lend to the burghers. In 1534 they lost the right to trade within Colmar, and in 1541 were forbidden to enter the city even to attend markets and fairs.  This was a result of a decision that Joseph (Joselmann) Gershon of Rosheim made and the result is not well-known. The negative attitude of the burghers toward the Jews remained unchanged, even after Colmar was formally annexed to France in 1681. During the 18th century, there were a few Jews who were authorized in the town in order to prepare ritual food for Jews who visited the town for trade purposes. Finally, after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Jews were again allowed to settle in Colmar and the Jewish population reached approximately 1,200 in 1929. During the Holocaust, Jews in Colmar shared the fate of the other Jews in Alsace and Moselle. They were expelled from their homes, and their synagogue, which was built in 1843, was completely ransacked. After the war the survivors rebuilt the  Jewish community, restored the synagogue, and set up new institutions, including a community center. In 1969 there were over 1,000 Jews in Colmar.  

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HOTELS IN Colmar

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